Hemitaurichthys thompsoni also commonly referred as the Thompson's butterflyfish is known from the Mariana, Samoa, Johnston, Hawaiian, Line and Tuamoto islands.
The Thompson's butterflyfish is often to see in large schools mostly in depths from 10 m to 300 m, only sometimes above clear reefs at depths as shallow as 4 m.
Hemitaurichthys thompsoni is known as a plankton feeder.
Butterflyfish are not recommended for reefs as they will pick at or eat a wide variety of corals, fan worms, and other invertebrates. Most Butterflyfish are known to pick at Aiptaisia, a parasitic anemone.